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What are the major phases in the spiral model of software development?

What are the major phases in the spiral model of software development?
         There are six major phases in the spiral model of software development.  These are :

  1. Customer communication
  2. Planning
  3. Risk analysis
  4. Mode-ling / construcrion
  5. Engineering
  6. System Evaluation
Communication :  Communication is one of the very important activities in software development, if there is good communication between client and developer, then the probability of failure of software is less, because software developer make effective communication to client, and he/she understand the requirement of software project.

Planning :  In this phase first of all, each and every activities depends upon the requirements of the customer/client, then estimate the schedule of each and every activities, when first activity start and how much time it will require to solve it, then estimate the budget of each and every activity.  Then develop Software Requirement Specification.

Risk Analysis :  Concerned with both technical and management risk.

Modeling :  The goal of the design phase is to transform the requirement specified in the software Requirement Specification document into a structure that is suitable for the implementation in some programming language.
       In the technical term, during the design phase of the software architecture is derived from software requirement specification document.
      The design phase of the software development is most critical factor affecting the quality of the software.
      Output of this phase is the design document :
      Design activity divided into two separate phases :

  1. System design : Some time called top level design, aim to identify the module, how many module needed, how they interconnect to each other and also specify each and every module specification.
  2. Detailed Design :  Internal logic of each and every module is specified during it.
     Engineering :  Once the design phase is complete, next phase is coding, it is another very important activity in software development i.e design must be translated into machine readable form.  It directly affect both testing and maintenance.  Well written code, can reduce the testing and maintenance effort, once the coding is complete, next phase is testing.
       Testing process focus and internal logic of the software, assuming that all statement have been tested functional, i.e conducting the test to uncover the error and ensure that defined input will produced actual result, that agree with result.

     System evaluation :  After the software install towards the customer side, obtain the feedback to them, either they will face problem during execution of the software project.  If there is any modification required, that will done, and take feedback until or unless customer not satisfy according to requirement specification.
        The spiral is a risk-reduction oriented model that breaks a software project up into mini-projects, each addressing one or more major risks.  After major risks have been addressed, the spiral model terminates as a waterfall model.  Spiral iterations involve six step :

  1. Determine objectives, alternatives and constraints.
  2. Identify and resolve risks
  3. Evaluate alternatives
  4. Develop the deliverable's for that iteration and verify that they are correct.
  5. Plan the next iteration.
  6. Commit to an approach for the next iteration.

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