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Solution of Q1


(a)  Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the design, development, operation, and maintenance of software, and the study of these approaches i.e. the application of engineering to software.

(b)  Data Dictionary : The data dictionary is an organized listings of all data elements that are pertinent to the system, with precise, rigorous definition so that both user and system analyst will have a common understanding of input, output and component of store, and even intermediate calculations.
       In other words, a data dictionary is a repository ( manual or computed based ) containing information about the various data objects appearing on each DFD.
      Data dictionary is used to provide an organized approach for representing the characteristics of each data object and control item.

(c)  Data modeling :  Data modeling is a process used to define and analyze data requirements needed to support the business processes within the scope of corresponding information systems in organizations.  Therefore, the process of data modeling involves professional data modelers working closely with business stakeholders as well as potential users of the information system.
      There are three different types of data models produced while progressing from requirements to the actual database to be used for information system.
Factors of data modelling :
(i) Problem solving principles.
(ii) Design principles.
(iii) Information overload.
(iv) System theory.

(d)  Difference between database and data warehouse :

Data Warehouse
It is used to design and optimize to record.
It has to be designed and optimized to respond to analysis questions that are critical for your business.
The tables and joins are complex since they are normalized. This is done to reduce redundant data and to save storage space.
The tables and joins are simple since they are de-normalized. This is done to reduce the response time for analytical queries.
Optimized for write operation.
Optimized for read operations.
Performance is low for analysis queries.
High performance for analytical queries.

 (e)  Basis Path Testing :  Basis path testing is a white box technique.  It allows the design and definition of a basis set of execution paths. The test cases created from the basis set allow the program to be executed in such a way as to examine each possible path through the program by executing each statement at least once.

(f)  The method for finding cyclomatic complexity is :
(i)  Control flow graph of the program :  The nodes of the graph correspond to indivisible groups of commands of a program, and a directed edge connects two nodes if the second command might be executed immediately after the first command.
(ii) NDepend : It is used to do some static code analysis, and it measures cyclomatic complexity.

(g)  To illustrate the cost impact of early error detection, we consider a series of relative costs that is based on actual cost data collected for large software projects.
       Assume that an error uncovered during design will cost 1 monetary unit to correct.  Relative to this cost, the same error uncovered just before testing commences will cost 6.5 unites; during testing 15 units; and after release, between 60 and 100 units.
(h)  Statistical quality assurance reflects a growing trend throughout industry to become more quantitative about quality.  For software, statistical quality assurance implies the following steps:
(i) Information about software defects is collected and categorized.
(ii) An attempt is made to trace each defect to its underlying cause (e.g non-conformance to specifications, design error, violation of standards, poor communication with the customer).
(iii) Using the Pareto principle ( 80% of the defects can be traced to 20% of all possible causes), isolate the 20% (the "vital few").
(iv) Once the vital few causes have been identified, move to correct the problems that have caused the defects.

(i)  CASE Tools :  CASE Tools are software programs that are designed to assist human programmers with the complexity of the processes and the artifacts of software engineering.  They constitute the laws of and automated tools that aid in the synthesis, analysis, modelling, or documentation of software.
       The CASE tools support standard software development methods such as Jackson structure programming or structured system analysis and design method.  The CASE tools follow a typical process for the development of the system.

(j)  The possible errors of black box testing are :
(i) Incorrect or missing functions.
(ii) Interface errors
(iii) Errors in data structures or external data base access
(iv) Behaviour or performances errors
(v) Initialization errors
(vi) Termination errors

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