The most important pre-requisite for effective communication is having a rich vocabulary and a mastery over the art of making new words. One must increase vocabulary in order to communicate with others in English language. However, it has to be kept in mind that words acquire their meaning from the context in which they are used. It follows that a word can be employed as a noun in one sentence and used as a verb in another.
1. Kindly cast your vote. (Noun)
Vote for a deserving candidate. (Verb)
2. Hard work ensures good marks. (Noun)
Work hard to ensure good marks. (Verb)
You can see words above act differently. For learning language, there fore, one has to understand the functions of words. A word can act as a Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction or interjection.
Words are formed from basic words that is the words that exist as they are. For example, man, clock, fit,scholar, play etc. New words can be formed from these primary words by adding a syllable or letter either in the beginning or the end of another word. The letter added in the beginning is called Prefix and that in the end is called Suffix.
For instance :
dis- disorder, dislike, disconnect disorganize, displease.
extra- extraordinary, extramarital.
inter- inter-college, interchange.
semi- semiconductor, semi-circular, semi-final.
under- underused, underestimate, underworld
hood- sisterhood, neighborhood.
ence- excellence, importance, negligence.
cracy- bureaucracy, aristocracy.
ance- annoyance, arrogance, governance.
able- memorable, eatable, tolerable.
In written as well as oral communication repeating one word several times in a short span of time and space does not go well. We want variety in style. So, we need substitute words that are similar in meaning. These words are called synonyms. Practically words similar in meaning do not exist. A synonym of a word, therefore, is not an exact equivalent of the original- it is nearly so. That's why we go in for a synonym which is almost similar in meaning.
"A synonym is not an exact substitute of a word, not similar in meaning but almost similar in sense".
A synonym has to perform the same function in a sentence as the original word does. Thus a noun must have a noun synonym, and adjective must be replaced by an adjective synonym, and so on.
For example :
This is exactly what he meant. (Adv)
This is precisely what he meant. (Adv)
I praise her form. (Verb)
I admire her form. (Verb)
Antonym is a word which is opposite in meaning or sense. If exact opposite is not available, we select the nearest opposite.